## Connect 4 in the Classroom

Connect 4 is such a simple idea that it is a world-wide hit as a table top game. As a youngster, it was one of my games of choice along with Buckaroo and Coppit.

The concept of the game is deceptively simple. Line four counters in a row horizontally, vertically or diagonally. But the strategy behind it has children thinking logically in 2, 3, 4 and more steps once they get past the ‘just drop a counter in the hole’ stage. Designers Howard Wexler and Ned Strongin made this a strongly solved game meaning that the first player can always win by playing the right moves. I have played for 37 years and have still not worked out how to do this successfully every time yet!

Knowing that this excellent game was a simple one to teach, I came up with the idea of using it in conjunction with maths facts. I had seen ‘blockbusters’ (a UK 80s/90s TV game show) (Blockbuster’s Theme Tune) being used and decided that Connect 4 could be used as a better game with two parts: using logic and strategic thinking to outwit your partner and also using basic maths facts in a fun way.

As it turns out, the children focus on the strategy part of the game more and the maths facts become more and more internalised the more they play. This is a great example of ‘camouflaged learning’ that Lee Parkinson explores on his blog.

How to Play in the Classroom

The way to use the game boards in the PDF below is to imagine that they are a Connect 4 board. The physics in the real world apply to this game so, below, if you ‘dropped a counter’ at the top of the third column, it would fall all the way down to the bottom and the child would land on the 6 square in the bottom row. The next counter in this column would land on 33 and so on. You could not choose 27 on the top row unless all the other squares beneath it had been filled.

You could use counters to cover each number, but if they get knocked, the counters scatter everywhere so colouring in the square is more practical.

If a child wanted to choose the number, they have to say the multiplication where that number is the answer, for example, 3 x 2 = 6. If they say the correct multiplication, they can colour the square. If they do not say the correct multiplication, their partner needs to correct them.

In the past, I have played it where if the child does not say the correct multiplication, they miss a go, but when you have a stand-off where a child is forced to use a square that will result in their opponent winning, they have purposely said the wrong answer so the turn passes to their partner, who purposely said the wrong answer so the turn passes to their partner, who purposely said the wrong answer so the turn passes to their partner…

So stalemate was given, not because the square was full, but because the opponents didn’t want to lose.

The real beauty of this game though is that they have a chance at some thinking time in between turns. If child A wants to colour 36 but doesn’t know the fact immediately, they have some thinking time, while their opponent is taking their turn, to work out the correct calculation. If they don’t need the thinking time to work out the calculation, they use it to plan out their next move and what their opponents subsequent move might be.

The Game Boards

In the PDF below I have included a set of game sheets for each multiplication table from 2 to 12. The first game boards have squared 1cm x 1cm grids beneath so the players can record their calculations. This stops the children from just colouring. The second set of game cards are 6 of the same grid for each times table without the calculation recording grid underneath. These can be used when the children have the facts internalised and/or can play without just colouring in! These can be cut into 6 small game cards and used as extension games.

Also included are: a sheet for practicing halving numbers to 20; a sheet for doubling numbers to 10; a sheet for number bonds to 10 and a sheet for 3D shapes.

The number bonds to 10 sheet is very versatile and can be used for a range of mathematical facts such as multiplication and division as well as number bonds.

For example, if the teacher gave the pair this grid and told them they were using their 4 times tables and a child wanted to colour the 5 square, they would have to say what 4 x 5 equals to colour the square. This flexible grid can be used for other mathematical concepts, for example, the teacher tells the pair they have to say the square number or multiply it by 0.5 or … this list goes on!

This is meant as a recap activity, a mental starter (I never let the kids win. If they win it is on their own merit!) and an interesting, enjoyable way of practicing the skills the children already have while trying to develop their strategic thinking skills. Have a go and let me know how you get on.

@gazneedle